Somoza’s family alone owned more than 22,000 square kilometers of arable land, and other large tracts of land were concentrated in very few hands. Dodson, Michael, and Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughnessy (1990). The country had suffered both war and natural disaster in the form of the devastating 1972 Nicaragua earthquake and in 1979 approximately 600,000 Nicaraguans were homeless and 150,000 were either refugees or in exile,[15] out of a total population of just 2.8 million. Germany Salvador Martí Puig "Nicaragua. [12] Democratic elections in 1990 resulted in the election of a majority of anti-sandinista parties and FSLN leaving power. It is from this perspective and the strategy of permanent revolution that we analyze the revolution in Nicaragua. But one of the blows to the Nicaraguan revolution came from Cuba and the politics of Fidel Castro. On July 19, the FSLN forces entered the capital and installed the Government Junta. Background Nicaragua before this revolution was only known as unsteady and unpredictable. There was a strong U.S. military presence from 1911 to 1933, and it was those troops who built the genocidal National Guard and put at its head Anastasio Somoza García. The toll of the confrontations in this first period of the revolution included more than 40,000 dead and 100,000 wounded; this happened during a period when the central engine of production was made up of urban workers, the agricultural proletariat, poor people, semi-proletarians of the countryside, and poor peasants. Furthermore, there were massive literacy campaigns, universal public health systems, the recognition of land occupations and decrees of expropriation of idle or uncultivated land. The Nicaraguan Agrarian Reform developed into four phasesthis aspect alone of the Nicaraguan Revolution should be developed into a new article: In 1985, the Agrarian Reform distributed 235,000 acres (950 km2) of land to the peasantry. The Nicaraguan Revolution brought immense restructuring and reforms to all three sectors of the Economy. Portugal After a 1936 military coup that was ratified by fraudulent elections, Somoza became the country’s president. "Bases de datos políticos de las Américas". By 1982 Contra forces had begun carrying out assassinations of members of the Nicaraguan government and by 1983 the Contras had launched a major offensive and the CIA was helping them to plant mines in Nicaragua's Habours to prevent foreign weapons shipments from arriving. This was followed by the literacy campaigns of 1982, 1986, 1987, 1995 and 2000, all of which were also awarded by UNESCO. Forty years ago Friday—July 19, 1979—a revolution in Nicaragua promised hope and dignity to the people of Central America. In the ten years prior to the overthrow of the Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979, US television - all networks - devoted exactly one hour to Nicaragua, and that was entirely on the Managua earthquake of 1972. The urban working class was in motion. The GRNN was composed of two high representatives of the bourgeoisie: Violeta Chamorro, the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, and Alfonso Robelo Callejas; two representatives of the FSLN, Daniel Ortega and Moisés Hernán; and finally, one representative of the center and the professional sectors, Sergio Ramírez Mercado. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U.S. support for the government and its military[13] as well as a heavy reliance on U.S. based multi-national corporations. Aftermath of 1959 A. U.S. government determined after 1959 to prevent successful leftist revolutions B. Second, it sought a resolution to the land question. Somoza became increasingly isolated and was only backed by Latin American dictatorships. [26] The Servicio Militar Patriótico (Patriotic Military Service), a compulsory draft, was also established. The aim was to expunge the example of July 1979 – to show that revolution could not succeed. Although it had the existing military base in Panama, the United States built a new one in Honduras as a way of destroying the revolution. LEE SUSTAR assesses the legacy of the Nicaraguan Revolution, which took place 25 years ago this month. The 1984 election took place on November 4. Many of the initial Contras were former members of the Somoza regime's National Guard unit and many were still loyal to Somoza who was living in exile in Honduras. The national averages of valid votes for president were: The Esquipulas Peace Agreement was an initiative in the mid-1980s to settle the military conflicts that had plagued Central America for many years, and in some cases (notably Guatemala) for decades. 106. evolution of demography in Nicaragua (1961-2003), Data FAOSTAT. [22] As a result, in September 1980, UNESCO awarded Nicaragua with the “Nadezhda K. Krupskaya” award for their successful literacy campaign. [28] On 17 November 1981, President Reagan signed National Security Directive 17, and authorized covert support to anti-Sandinista forces. The Revolution faced a rural economy well behind in technology and, at the same time, devastated by the guerrilla warfare and the soon to come civil war against the Contras. Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in 1912, as part of the Banana Wars, the Somoza family political dynasty came to power which would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. Sandino and his “small and crazy army”, as the Chilean writer Gabriela Mistral c… The extension and triumph of the Central American revolution⁠—and its unity in a federation with Cuba⁠—would have been one of the most terrible blows to U.S. imperialism. Overall in the revolution, from 1978-1989, around 40,000 people were killed, and the country was ravaged by the guerrilla warfare. The Nicaraguan revolution took place all over Nicaragua from 1977-2006. Would you like to contribute to Left Voice? The Contras, heavily backed up by the CIA and, although secretly, opened a "second front" in the Atlantic coast and Costa Rican borders of the country. This represented about 75 percent of all land distributed to peasants since 1980. After two days, the government agreed to pay $500,000 and release certain prisoners resulting in major victory for the FSLN. The Nicaraguan government decided to move the elections to February 1990 and to accept the proposed modifications to the 1988. In 1987, the Esquipulas II agreements were signed by several Central American Presidents. From 1927 to 1933, Augusto César Sandino led the struggle against U.S. imperialism and the Díaz government. In 1961 José Carlos Fonseca Amador, Silvio Mayorga, and Tomás Borge Martínez formed the FSLN and with the help of students the organization gathered support from peasants and anti-Somoza elements within Nicaraguan society as well as from the Communist Cuban government, the leftist Panamanian government of Omar Torrijos and the Venezuelan government of Carlos Andrés Pérez. In this context, the revolution in Nicaragua had the goal of resolving several structural issues. 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